Aquatic therapy & infantile cerebral palsy
published in November - December 2019 - in Il Fisioterapista - issue n.6


  1. Rosembaum P, Paneth N, Leviton A, et al. A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neur 2007; 109: 8-14.
  2. Kirby RS, Wingate MS, Van Naarden Braun K, et al. Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Res Dev Disabil 2011; 32(2): 462-9.
  3. ACPR Group. Australian cerebral palsy register report 2013. Cerebral palsy alliance Sydney 2013.
  4. Opheim A, Jahnsen R, Olsson E, Stanghelle JK. Walking function, pain, and fatigue in adults with cerebral palsy: a 7-year follow-up study. Dev Med Child Neur 2009; 51(5): 381-8.
  5. Soyupek F, Aktepe E, Savas S, Askin A. Do the self-concept and quality of life decrease in CP patients? Focussing on the predictors of self-concept and quality of life. Disabil Rehabil 2010; 32(13): 1109-15.
  6. Damiano DL, Dodd K, Taylor NF. Should we be testing and training muscle strength in cerebral palsy? Dev Med Child Neurol 2002; 44: 68-72.
  7. Katsimanis G, Evaggelinou C, Christoulas K, Kandrali I, Angelopoulou N. Using a training program to enhance the aerobic power in young individuals with spastic diplegia. In: Koskoulou M, Geladas N, Klissouras V (eds). 7th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Athens, Greece: European College of Sport Science, 24-28 July 2002. Athens: Pashalidis Medical Publisher, 2002; p 153.
  8. Damiano DL, Kelly LE, Vaughn CL. Effects of quadriceps femoris muscle strengthening on crouch gait in children with spastic diplegia. Phys Ther 1995; 75: 658-71.
  9. Holland LJ, Steadward RD. Effects of resistance and flexibility training on strength, spasticity/muscle tone and range of motion of elite athletes with cerebral palsy. Palaestra 1990: 27-48.
  10. Fowler EG, Ho TW, Nwigwe AL, Dorey F. The effects of quadriceps femoris muscle strengthening exercises on spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther 2001; 81: 1215-23.
  11. World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.
  12. Vargus-Adams JN, Martin LK. Domains of importance for parents, medical professionals and youth with cerebral palsy considering treatment outcomes. Child Care, Health Dev 2011; 37(2): 276-81.
  13. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2000.
  14. Jahnsen R, Villien L, Stanghelle JK, Holm I. Fatigue in adults with cerebral palsy in Norway compared with the general population. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003; 45: 296-303.
  15. Dresen MHW, Vermuelen H, Netelenbos BJ, Krot H. Physical work capacity and classroom attention of handicapped and non-handicapped children. Int J Rehab Res 1982; 5:5-12.
  16. Fernandez JE, Pitetti KH. Training of ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 468-72.
  17. Cavuoto F, Mangiarotti MA. Riabilitazione in acqua secondo il metodo A.S.P. ANIK 2017.
  18. Thorpe DE, Reilly M. The effect of an aquatic resistive exercise program on lower extremity strength, energy expenditure, functional mobility, balance and self-perception in an adult with cerebral palsy: a retrospective case report. J Aquat Phys Ther 2000 8:18-24.
  19. Kelly et al. Aquatic exercise for cerebral palsy, Dev Med Child Neurol 2005; 47: 838-42.
  20. Roostaei M, Baharlouei H, Azadi H, Fragala-Pinkham MA. Effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Phys Occup Ther Pediat 2017; 37 (5): 496-515.
  21. Ryan JM, Cassidy EE, Noorduyn SG, O’Connell NE. Exercise interventions for cerebral palsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017; Issue 6. Art. No.: CD011660.
  22. Lai CJ, Wen-Yu L, Tsui-Fen Y, et al. Pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function and enjoyment in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy of various motor severities. J Child Neurol 2015; 30(2): 200-8.
  23. Dimitrijević L, Aleksandrović M, Madić D, et al. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy. J Hum Kinet 2012; 32: 167-74.
  24. Güeita-Rodríguez J, García-Muro F, Rodriguez-Fernández AL, et al. What areas of functioning are influenced by aquatic physiotherapy? Experiences of parents of children with cerebral palsy. Develop Neurorehab 2018; 21(8): 506-14.